Korea’s World Cup So Far

Over on the Korean Football Blog I’ve got a post up with detailed analysis about South Korea’s World Cup performances so far, have a look if you’re interested! Especially useful for any readers who want to ingratiate themselves with Korean coworkers or friends by demonstrating your knowledge of Korean football!

Park Ji-sung celebrates his superb goal against Greece


New Blog

Just a quick post before I get back to more serious posting to say I’ve started up a new blog, called the Korean Football Blog, which is about… Korean football (meaning 축구).

If you’re interested – especially in the run-up to the World Cup – check it out, it’s obviously more light-hearted than this blog, but I hope it’ll be a good introduction to Korean football for anyone who doesn’t know that much, and a good source for people who want to keep track of the Korean national side and players around the world! If you’re interested enough to check out my blog, you should also take a look at the blog Good For Man’s Health, whose author writes frequently good posts about both North and South Korean national sides – we’re a minority in the Korea blogosphere, but the passion’s all there!

More real posts to come, I promise!

Improving Korea As A Tourist Destination: Part 2

Part 1 here.

Part 3 here.

In the last post I identified what I considered to be the main places people visit in Korea’s neighbours, China and Japan, and what drives people to visit those places. I also established that the power of pop culture abroad can be an important driving force for tourism at home, including foreign pop culture that references one’s own culture, or uses one’s own country as a setting, the Kill Bill films for example. By that logic, the influence of Korean pop culture abroad, and foreign pop culture referencing Korea, needs to grow. I also layed out a list of various events, places, topics etc that could feature in a sustained growth of Korean pop culture, and indeed, foreign pop culture drawing on Korea as a source material, as has so often been the case with China and Japan.

Finally, at the end of the post, I outlined some basic types of travel that people embark on, so we can move on from there to see what Korea specifically has to offer. That list again:

  • Hiking/exploring
  • Relaxing, pampered holidays
  • City stays, particularly in historical or futuristic cities: anywhere that’s unusual and interesting.
  • Cultural exploration
  • Action/sports holidays including golf, winter sports etc.

For most of these categories, it should be obvious that Korea can provide a uniquely Korean experience of them. Take hiking, Korea may not have the highest mountains you can ever hike, but they have a tremendous history with their mountains, and they have always viewed mountains differently to us. Korea provides hiking routes that take you along the coast, past Buddhist temples, Confucian schools, shamanistic sites and happenings, shrines to mountain spirits, hot springs, gorges, waterfalls, rivers, views; this list could go on. Now, for any non-jaded, inexperienced Korea traveler, that’s got to be an impressive combination.


Relaxing, pampered holidays is a category that could do with some work in Korea, and as far as I’m aware, the closest they get is in Jeju-do. It’s a fine place to visit, with some high quality hotels, scenery, beaches, and some culture if you want it. It has good food, including fresh “sushi.” Not a bad offering, and personally I think it would be a shame to overdevelop the island for the sake of improved “high class” tourism. We must also take into account that the Pacific Islands are not all that far away, and for many people I’m sure it wouldn’t matter how good the facilities were in Jeju-do, Bali’s always going to win. I know there are also some very nice, expensive hotels in Kyŏngju (Gyeongju), complete with plenty of historical and cultural sites to see, but again, it’s a place that it seems a shame to overdevelop with fancy hotels – you lose the soul of the place. It’s therefore a shame that Korea doesn’t have miles and miles of virtually unused tropical beaches, so this probably isn’t the best avenue to take to increase tourism significantly.

As for city stays, I think Korea is more than capable of providing an attractive tourist destination. It simply depends on marketing, and accurately identifying what tourists want to see. Seoul clearly meets the western tourists ideas of the East Asian old meets new. It’s got its futuristic buildings, vibrant nightlife, great food, high technology, excellent hotels, all alongside the traditional temples, palaces, shrines and monuments, and it’s surrounded by relatively low, easily-climbable mountains that give you a break from the bustle and a great view. I also think it has a very unusual atmosphere, with some “quirky” features that have the potential to really connect with tourists, such as the 포장마차, the little street stalls selling cheap snack food.

Cheonggyecheon, central Seoul

Cheonggyecheon, central Seoul


On top of that, there’s also Kyŏngju, as I mentioned before, which is a good city to stay in if it’s culture or history you’re after. Pusan (Busan) also offers a good alternative, and both Jeju-si and Sŏgwip’o (Seogwipo) can combine the best of various different types of holiday.

When people go on a “cultural trip,” what they’re really after is to see some of the authentic local culture that’s different from what they’ve seen before. On that note, I think that could be achieved anywhere in Korea, but some destinations are more obvious than others: Seoul, Kyŏngju, Jeju-do, Hahoe, temples, mountainous rural areas and others I’m sure.

Korea also offers a surprisingly good amount of sports for holiday makers. There are of course numerous golf courses, many at a high international standard, they’re also cheaper than Japan, and regularly classed among the best in Asia. Korea also doesn’t seem to realise how lucky it is to have a few decent winter sports resorts. Admittedly, if it’s altitude you’re after, you’d be best going elsewhere, but for the cost, facilities and relative unspoilt nature of the resorts Korea should be a valid alternative to other more established destinations. In my view, however, Korea is not even on the map in terms of ski resorts, very few people would think of going to Korea for skiing, and I’m sure most companies that people would use to book a winter sports holiday won’t service Korea either. This needs to change, and the potential is all there. It’s also a location that offers more in terms of cultural discovery for most western tourists than Europe or North America. On top of that there’s also horse riding, water sports, snorkeling, SCUBA diving and so on.


Also, there are obviously certain specific sites that are unique to Korea, or add to Korea’s value as a tourist destination.

For me, one of the best has to be the lava tubes in Jeju-do, that UNESCO describes as being of “unequaled quality.” I’d add to this Hallasan, the volcano with the lake-filled crater in the centre of the island, simply for its aesthetic beauty.


For completely different reasons the DMZ is also entirely unique. It’s also the only remaining front of the Cold War, and has to be seen to be believed. I know some people have argued that something so sombre, important and serious shouldn’t be treated like a tourist attraction, and I can see where they’re coming from. My view, however, is that people should take the opportunity to see what one of the most devastating conflicts of the last century has done to the two countries, to see partially into a closed country, and to witness firsthand more of the current geopolitical state. It may be upsetting, but we have to learn about the major conflicts of more recent times, witness where they took place, the people who were involved, because it gives us an important perspective. For that same reason, I’m also a fan of the War Memorial Museum. The Korean War is known as ‘The Forgotten War’, but I think it’s about time something was done to change that. This museum goes above and beyond in that respect, dealing not only with the Korean War of the ’50s, but with a history of combat throughout the ages, making it fascinating, informative and very poignant. It also has value as it emphasises the role played by all who fought, as I think most people (who aren’t Koreaphiles) are aware of America sending troops, but not so aware of how many fought from other countries. In that sense, it still really is the Forgotten War, unfortunately.

Teardrop display from the War Memorial Museum, made from the dogtags of soldiers who fought in the Korean War

Teardrop display from the War Memorial Museum, made from the dogtags of soldiers who fought in the Korean War

When Koreans talk about the beautiful scenery or mountains in their country, and when this is the focus of marketing Korea, I feel it would pay dividends if people could be more specific about which mountains they are referring to. Firstly, there’s no reason to expect that a foreigner won’t be able to muster up at least a vague attempt at pronouncing the proper name, or remembering it. People manage to say “Mount Fuji”, right? Why not Mount Halla? Seorak Mountains? Saying Korea is 70% mountainous isn’t going to attract anyone, it’s also far too vague to give someone a decent impression of the terrain. Not all of Korea’s mountains are particularly beautiful or have certain appealing features. There needs to be an identification of the ones that do have a special appeal – Namsan looks out over the whole of the city, such and such mountain has lots of temples, or a beautiful waterfall, or a giant buddha statue. This approach has worked to some extent in China, and even more so in Japan. No country is entirely amazing; those charged with marketing Korea need to find the parts that they really wish other people could see, and then encourage it, with reasons. The same goes for temples and palaces. There are spectacular examples of both in Korea, and some with incredible histories. These should be made known known. The aim should be to have someone living in Australia, or France, or anywhere else, who’s never had any interest in Korea, to be able to say, “hey, there’s that big temple in Korea, it looks really impressive.” People can picture certain buildings in Japan, China, even if they don’t know the name or anything about them. Korea needs to try and achieve the same level of basic awareness and appeal globally for some of its sites.

Another potentially massive selling point for Korea is the food. It really is unique (again, forgive me for using that word so much – but it is), and it’s glorious! Why is Indian food so popular outside of India? Because it’s different, it’s spicy, and because Indian people move in numbers outside of India. It gets slightly adapted for the local palette, and becomes well known and well liked. India is famous for its food, and most people have never eaten Indian food in India. The same can be said for Japanese food, it’s unique, and has spread, and people think of the two together, despite probably never having eaten Japanese food in Japan. Again, Chinese food is the same. Surely Korea could also benefit from its cuisine becoming better known, better marketed, and better adapted outside of Korea.

I’ve heard that Korean food is quite popular and well-known in parts of North America, which bodes well, but in other parts of the world it’s definitely under-represented. For example, in my native London, the vast majority of customers in all the Korean restaurants are Korean. Of the ones I’ve been to, the one that is most popular among non-Koreans is the most expensive and the least authentic. But the Chinese food you get in London is generally not that authentic. Neither is the Indian. They adapt to succeed. In fact, there is one reasonably authentic and quite good Korean restaurant near Centre Point in London (called Assa for those who’re interested) that permanently has a sign in its window advertising for staff. It’s in Korean. Nothing wrong with hiring Koreans I suppose, but surely they’d have to be able to speak English to serve in a restaurant in London? And would it be that bad if a non-Korean worked there? This may just be a phenomenon that’s limited to Koreans in Britain, but the small Korean communities in Britain tend to be very insular, and often try and replicate a mini-Korea exclusive to the resident Koreans wherever they live. I’m not bemoaning this, I don’t even think it’s wrong, but there’s also nothing wrong with opening up to others around, and both welcoming them among you, and trying to establish yourself among them. In that way, I’m sure more interest could be generated in everyday things such as Korean food, etiquette and so.


But, if you can get people interested in the cuisine in Korea, why not encourage them to visit traditional markets. I’ve heard that some Koreans think that tourists should be discouraged from visiting these markets, as they might be a bit dirty and “backwards.” Ridiculous. They’re great fun, and nothing at all to be ashamed of. I know people who have never been to China know of it’s quirky street markets selling all kinds of wonderments, that would surely be perfectly mundane in China. The same should apply to Korea in my opinion. Folk villages are also great for getting some of the traditional culture and way of life, and what Korea was like before it became thoroughly “modernised.” I’d also obviously advocate Kyŏngju for the same reasons. Kyŏngju should take a leaf out of Kyoto’s book and emphasise the traditional aspects – come on, it’s fun!

That said, according to this article, Korea’s most popular tourist attraction in terms of number of visitors per year is actually Everland, and four of the most popular nine tourist attractions in East Asia (China, Korea, Japan, the article decides to just call this area ‘Asia’) are theme parks. Time to invest in Everland and Lotte World, methinks.

The first point of contact for most tourists to Korea will inevitably be the capital, Seoul, and many won’t even make it outside of the big city. But maybe they don’t have to.

  • Cheonggyecheon
  • Any of the futuristic-looking parts
  • The mountains around it
  • Cheap, efficient, clean subway – rivals any other in the world, surely
  • Temples/palaces – the old and new thing again

As you will see from this post, I’m fascinated by Korean shamanism, and I hate the way it’s been suppressed by Koreans. I cannot abide by those Koreans who think it’s “backwards” and doesn’t have a place in modern Korea. Jesus supposedly lived over 2000 years ago, and they can find a place for him, so live and let live, it’s part of the national history, culture and society. I also think this is exactly the sort of thing tourists would love to see, and not in a false, showy sort of way. Practicing shamans should be encouraged, and shamanistic sites should be protected, not destroyed. I also believe Korean shamans could find a place in the pop culture aspect as well.

Another draw is Buddhism. It’s always been flavoured with a sense of the exotic in the west, with some famous temples, warrior monks, meditation and so on. Korea has many brilliant temples, a long and vibrant Buddhist tradition, and this should be maintained, and potential tourists should be informed of it. Temple stays are also eye-opening experiences.

Final one, apologies for the length of this post again, and this one is quite possibly not at all viable, but it’s not my field. Here goes… Reintroduce tigers and bears to the countryside. That would be immense. Tigers are the national animal, and there aren’t even any left!

Male Sumatran tiger in the wild STCP 2000

Again, I’ve gone on for so long, I think it’s a suitable place to leave this post. There will be a third post that will deal with how the whole thing should be effectively marketed – the final stretch! Bear with me please, but until that’s up your comments are more than welcome!

Hello, annyŏng – The First Post

Welcome to Asadal Thought, a blog about all that is Korean Studies, by a Korean Studies student. If you would like to know more about the aims of this blog, or about me, please visit my About page –> I would also be very interested to see if any Koreans find their way here, and what they think about what I discuss. I do speak Korean, so please do comment or leave messages!

Unfortunately I’ve been inspired to begin this blog after deliberating for some time during the penultimate week of my penultimate year of my degree. More worryingly, in the final week I’m required to give two presentations, one about the economic implications of reunification of the two Koreas, and one on any topic of my choice related to contemporary Korean society, which is where this post comes in. One thing more contemporary (albeit not exactly academic) than just about anything else is the success in recent times of a crucial figure in South Korea’s history:

Park Ji-sung.

Yes, my first ever post on a blog about Korean Studies themes will be about a footballer.


Since he moved to Manchester United in 2005, Park has become the first Asian player to play in four Champions League semi-finals, has won three English Premier League titles as of this afternoon, two League Cups, the Club World Cup and the Champions League. But this was of course not the great moment that it should have been. He should have been the first Asian player in history to play in the final of the European cup, let alone win it. But he was left out of the squad for the final, denied the chance for this unprecedented glory. The revelation of the team selection for that match came as a huge shock, considering the part Park had played in the quarter and semi-finals, and it was later revealed that manager Alex Ferguson apologised to Park, saying it was one of the most difficult decisions of his managerial career.

I was living in Seoul at the time, and I remember staying up well into the early hours of the morning to watch the final, and I was as shocked as everyone else seemed to be. It was particularly devastating for Koreans, who had been waiting to see one of their own lift the greatest trophy in club football for the first time. It was supposed to be a moment of immense national pride for Korea, but instead Park had to sit it out in a suit, and watch as his squad-mates went up to lift the trophy.

Koreans seem to act as one when it comes to success on the international stage, whether it be sporting success, business success or even being known for being good at maths. They crave success and they have a marked desire for the rest of the world to notice them. I can recall various instances of Korean friends asking me whether or not British people knew that Park Ji-sung is Korean, and that we didn’t think he Japanese. Same question relating to Samsung. And Hyundai. And do they know about the Korean War? And Ban Ki-Moon?

Korea has spent the last half a century driving for economic success, modernisation and globalisation. They resented being weaker than their neighbours as well as the Western powers at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th Centuries, and so they begun this trend. I think that there is a need for validation of all the work they have put in as a nation, as well as a natural desire to be considered by other countries as powerful and important. Koreans have had this instilled in them from an early age for years. The country’s military triumphs of the past are all well known, as are they great figures from history, their success in business, and they are all sources of great pride for the Korean people. They have received very little recognition, however, for sporting success. When Park Ji-sung moved to Manchester United, one of the top teams in the world, it seemed like this barren spell in the international sporting arena was going to come to a glorious end.

Park is a talented, hard working and very professional football player. Alex Ferguson clearly appreciates him, as do the Manchester United fans. It is foolish to question the selection policy of the most successful manager in English football history, despite what a good season Park had last year. This year, if anything, he has been even better. He shone against Arsenal in the Champions League semi-final, and even scored a goal today that was wrongly disallowed. He deserves to be named among the squad for the final this year, and it will rightly be a very proud moment for Koreans and for the man himself.

Park has earned the right to be considered a sporting hero in Korea. In my opinion, he is not only very good, and successful, but he is also one of the best sporting role models that Koreans have. The Beijing Olympics provided some new success stories for Korean sportspeople, most notably the baseball team, now ranked 2nd in the world, female weightlifter Jang Mi-ran and swimmer Park Taehwan, all of whom won gold medals. Yet despite their success, none are as prominent in the Korean mind as Park Ji-sung. In my opinion the best way to analyse him as a positive role model is to compare him with Kim Yu-na.

Kim is undoubtedly a fine athlete, having reached the very top of her sport at a very young age. You only have to watch this video to see that:

But for some reason the Korean media constantly demand her to be more than a top sportsperson. She has to be an entertainer, a singer, a dancer, attractive, sexy and clean-cut. Evidently, she is a very good looking young woman, and attractive young women in Korea tend to have their careers and to some extent their lives dominated by that characteristic. The same is happening to Kim, and it is entirely irrelevant to what she does and who she is. She’s marketed through her appearance, and by being something of a jack-of-all-trades on TV shows, see this video:

If only more focus could be placed on her sporting prowess and achievements, and not just the whole isn’t this amazing, a girl who does well at sports and she’s pretty, isn’t she talented! I can’t imagine that all the tv appearances and over-exposure will do her skating career much good, but the Korean media seem more preoccupied with making her fit the template of the Korean star than anything else. I suppose the point I’m really trying to make is; what would have happened to her if she was ugly? Take the weightlifter I mentioned previously, for example, Jang Mi-ran. She lifts in the 75+ kg category, and is not the most conventionally attractive woman. However, she is perhaps even more successful and dominant in her own sport than Kim Yu-na is in hers. If you were to type both their names into Korean Google in Korean, Jang Mi-ran (장미란) comes up with 427,000 results, whereas Kim Yu-na (김연아) produces 13,800,000. Enough said.

A Park Ji-sung search produces slightly less results than Kim Yu-na, at 7,240,000, but this is still considerable. Firstly, because he is not known for his good looks. He is also not marketed in this way. He is not known for any misdemeanors, self-promotion or theatrics. He gets on with his job, performs very well, and comes across as a nice guy, who is always professional. He has spoken of overcoming the difficulties of being a flat footed footballer, and his dedication to training from a young, following his heart, rather than pressure to only focus on study.

As I’m sure James Turnbull over at The Grand Narrative would agree, it is a great shame that such a talented woman as Kim Yu-na is becoming almost more renowned for her looks and various other talents (Being good looking might as well be a talent if you listen to some Koreans) rather than for what she is truly good at, and it is disappointing to me that the media continue to portray her this way. I haven’t embedded the video because I think that the comments on YouTube prove that the media has drastically altered her image and what she stands for, and it’s quite sad that they (and she) feel that she should be branded in this way.

Park is exactly the sort of sporting hero Korea needs, and I for one sincerely hope that he will feature in the final later this month.